Recognizing that many developing countries and small island developing states that have contributed the least to climate change are most likely to suffer the consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are able to do so – to continue to provide financial resources to help developing countries reduce and increase their capacity to withstand climate change. The agreement builds on the financial commitments of the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance to developing countries to $100 billion per year by 2020. (To put it in perspective, in 2017 alone, global military spending amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States. The Copenhagen Pact also created the Green Climate Fund to mobilize transformation funding with targeted public dollars. The Paris agreement expected the world to set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target by 2020 and create mechanisms to achieve this. « The decision to leave the Paris agreement was wrong when it was announced, and it`s still wrong today, » said Helen Mountford of the World Resources Institute. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, Green to celebrate the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history, November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Council) Although the agreement was signed in December 2015, the treaty did not enter into force until November 4, 2016, 30 days after the ratification of at least 55 countries representing 55% of global emissions. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making « efforts » to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today.
The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. His view on the Paris agreement was that it was unfair to the United States, so countries like India and China were free to use fossil fuels while the United States had to reduce its carbon. A month before the U.S. announcement on October 7, 2019, the Russian Federation ratified the Paris Agreement. After ratification, the country made a statement stressing that, as a non-Annex II country, it was not required under the UNFCCC to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to combat climate change. The declaration warns against creating « barriers to sustainable social and economic development » and also stresses « the importance of preserving and improving the absorption capacity of forests and other ecosystems » and « the need to take as much account as possible of this capacity in the implementation of the mechanisms of the agreement. » Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory is war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement.