The oil and gas industry operates in countries around the world in accordance with a number of types of agreements. These agreements can generally be categorized into one of four categories (or a combination of categories): risk agreements, concessions, production sharing agreements (PSA, also known as production sharing contracts, PSCs) and service contracts. Traditional concession agreements before 1940 were granted to large territories, sometimes to the whole country, for example. B irak. These grants were long-term (50 to 99 years). The IOC has had all the discretion and control to explore and verify whether or not a particular field can develop. A. Confidentiality. The parties recognize that the information that is the subject of this agreement (including, but not limited to all well-informed information obtained under the enterprise agreement), is sensitive and confidential protected persons belonging to the parties. Each party undertakes, for itself and its related companies, not to disclose, disclose or make available other information from third parties or to make it available to third parties, without (i) obtaining the consent of the third party, to keep this information confidential and to use it only in the context of the investment or participation in the revealing party or the purchase of interest to the part of the company.
or (ii) first obtain the explicit written agreement of the other party. Such publication or advertising, if authorized, is subject to the express acceptance by the third party of all conditions and the establishment of such a confidentiality agreement and subject to the confidentiality agreement. None of the above contains restricts a party`s right to use or disclose information available at the time of disclosure, which is not made available to the public because of an act or omission by that party; (2) demonstrated that this party is legally owned by that party before the date of this agreement; or (3) to that party by a third party who is entitled to disclose this information independently, which is made available to that party independently and which proves that that third party had the right to be disclosed before the date of this agreement. C. Complete agreement: This agreement, the export documents and the documents attached to it constitute the whole agreement between the parties, replaces all prior agreements, agreements, negotiations and discussions, written or public parties, and there are no guarantees, assurances or other agreements between the parties, unless expressly stipulated. No additional addition, amendment, amendment, amendment, waiver or termination of the contract is required, unless the parties have done so in writing. This did not result in delays, postponements or investments expected immediately. This was clearly contrary to the interests of host governments. Treaties do not provide for waivers of unexplored areas.
Other more traditional concession agreements have granted the IOC « in situ » oil, with market and price powers. Royalties were flat or fixed for unit rates and were sometimes credited with income tax. There was no or little signing bonus and sometimes no income tax.